PMI BLOG

Tools and Models useful for Change

Author: PMI

A selection of tools and models used in our courses and programmes that incorporate change methodology and approaches.

Kotter’s & Schlesinger 6 approaches to change resistance

We use this model in some of our courses including Managing & Influencing Stakeholders, it’s a good way to start a discussion with delegates, for example, what could be the impact of using manipulation and coercion when the rest of the employee population or members of a team were in denial about the need for change?

The Hamburger Model

Building on research by Jack Gibb into why projects fail, PMI developed this change model. It is often referred to by our delegates and within PMI as the ‘Hamburger model’.

Of all the projects studied, only 5% of the reasons for failure were due to not knowing what to do (task) or how to do it ( task process).

In fact, 95% of the reasons for project failure was due to a lack of sufficient management of how people felt and thought about the change, The Socio-Emotional and Political Realities surrounding the project (SEP). SEP in the model refers to both the external stakeholders ( who were affected by the change ) and the team engaged in the change. This highlights the critical need for effective team and stakeholder management in change projects. This model is referenced in our Lean Six Sigma Green Belt.

Interrelationship Diagraph


The purpose of the Interrelationship Diagraph (or relations diagram) is to identify and develop a consensus about logical and sequential connections – i.e. cause and effect relationships, between components of a problem, issue or system.

The input into the diagram can come from an affinity diagram (blog: how the affinity diagram can enable creativity).

The Kano Model

The Kano Model helps teams explore customer requirements and classify them into three categories.

Benefits – All processes should be aligned to their customers, direct or indirect, in the system or beyond. A logical approach to understanding and improving processes will help to uncover customer needs and wants but may still fail to generate delight

Expected – These are basic requirements the customer may not specifically request but will be dissatisfied if they are not met. They include the technical specifications which may only be defined by ‘experts’.

Wanted – There are the requirements customers are most likely to describe verbally in the interviews or discussions. They reflect the customer’s current set of problems or recent frustrations, Be sure to uncover why the customer wants a certain feature or specification. The more specific their request, the more important this becomes

The 3 Question Model 

Also known as ‘The Model for Improvement’, the 3 question model developed by Nolan and Provost, asks 3 simple questions designed to make PDSA (Plan, Do, Study, Act) a simple and highly effective model for change and improvement. When we talk about change in our organisations, we also need to think about why the change is taking place and what we are trying to achieve as a result of making that change.

Interestingly, when we introduce this question to management teams it often turns out that people have assumed that they know the answer to this question but actually has contradictory goals.

Question One
This focuses on really defining the nature of the change (or improvement)

Question Two
This is where we need to consider how that change we make is going to be measured.

Question Three
The application of the Plan Do Study Act and learning mindset.

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